Peran Orang Tua Terhadap Anak

Anak adalah anugerah dari sang pencipta, orang tua yang melahirkan anak harus bertangung jawab terutama dalam soal mendidiknya, baik ayah sebagai kepala keluarga maupun ibu sebagai pengurus rumah tangga. Keikutsertaan orang tua dalam mendidik anak merupakan awal keberhasilan orang tua dalam keluarganya apabila sang anak menuruti perintah orang tuanya terlebih lagi sang anak menjalani didikan sesuai dengan perintah agama.

Bobroknya moral seorang anak dan remaja bisa diakibatkan salah satu kesalahan dari orangtuanya seperti dalam hal mendidik anak terlalu keras. keluarga yang sedang bermasalah. Hal tersebut dapat membuat anak menjadi orang yang temperamental. Kebanyakan dari orang tua tidak memikirkan hal ini, mereka berasumsi jika mereka menjalani hidup sebagaimana yang sedang mereka jalani, peran pengasuhan akan terus dengan sendirinya.

Peran orang tua dalam keluarga yang ideal (lengkap) ada dua individu yang memainkan peranan penting yaitu peran ayah dan peran ibu, secara umum peran kedua individu tersebut adalah;

Peran ibu (1). memenuhi kebutuhan biologis dan fisik, (2) merawat dan mengurus keluarga dengan sabar, mesra dan konsisten, (3) mendidik, mengatur dan mengendalikan anak, (4) menjadi contoh dan teladan bagi anak.

Peran ayah

ayah sebagai (1) pencari nafkah, (2) ayah sebagai suami yang penuh pengertian dan memberi rasa aman, (3) ayah berpartisipasi dalam pendidikan anak, (4) ayah sebagai pelindung atau tokoh yang tegas, bijaksana, mengasihi keluarga.

Manun yang paling terpenting adalah peranan diatas tidak saklek semata-mata hanya melaksanakan seperti itu, harus adanya saling melengkapi antara keduanya.

Orang tua mempunyai berbagai macam fungsi yang salah satu di antaranya ialah mengasuh putra-putrinya. Dalam mengasuh anaknya orang tua dipengaruhi oleh budaya yang ada di lingkungannya. Di samping itu, orang tua juga diwarnai oleh sikap-sikap tertentu dalam memelihara, membimbing, dan mengarahkan putra-putrinya. Sikap tersebut tercermin dalam pola pengasuhan kepada anaknya yang berbeda-beda, karena orang tua mempunyai pola pengasuhan tertentu. Pola asuhan itu menurut Stewart dan Koch (1983: 178) terdiri dari tiga kecenderungan pola asuh orang tua yaitu:

  • Pola asuh otoriter

Menurut Stewart dan Koch (1983: 203), orang tua yang menerapkan pola asuh otoriter mempunyai ciri sebagai berikut; 1) kaku, 2) tegas, 3) suka menghukum, 4) kurang ada kasih sayang serta simpatik, 5) orang tua memaksa anak-anak untuk patuh pada nilai-nilai mereka, serta mencoba membentuk lingkah laku sesuai dengan tingkah lakunya serta cenderung mengekang keinginan anak, 6) orang tua tidak mendorong serta memberi kesempatan kepada anak untuk mandiri dan jarang memberi pujian, 7) hak anak dibatasi tetapi dituntut tanggung jawab seperti anak dewasa.

  • Pola asuh demokartis

Stewart dan Koch (1983: 219) menyatakan ciri-cirinya adalah:

  1. Bahwa orang tua yang demokratis memandang sama kewajiban dan hak antara orang tua dan anak.
  2. Secara bertahap orang tua memberikan tanggung jawab bagi anakanaknya terhadap segala sesuatu yang diperbuatnya sampai mereka menjadi dewasa,
  3. Mereka selalu berdialog dengan anak-anaknya, saling memberi dan menerima, selalu mendengarkan keluhan-keluhan dan pendapat anakanaknya,
  4. Dalam bertindak, mereka selalu memberikan alasannya kepada anak, mendorong anak saling membantu dan bertindak secara obyektif, tegas tetapi hangat dan penuh pengertian.
  • Pola asuh permisif

Stewart dan Koch (1983: 225) menyatakan bahwa :

  1. orang tua yang mempunyai pola asuh permisif cenderung selalu memberikan kebebasan pada anak tanpa memberikan kontrol sama sekali.
  2. anak dituntut atau sedikit sekali dituntut untuk suatu tangung jawab, tetapi mempunyai hak yang sama seperti orang dewasa.
  3. anak diberi kebebasan untuk mengatur dirinya sendiri dan orang tua tidak banyak mengatur anaknya.

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